Focus on Performance and Wellbeing

All instruments support the development of individuals and organisations


All assessments are extremely easy to use. Reports use every day language & are available immediately

Cost Effective

Simplified user training programmes. No license fees - pay per use. Competitive pricing structures

Evidence Based

All our work is supported by published research and client case studies. Data is available for analysis & evaluation.

All of our measures are evidence based and supported by sound academic theory. All have a technical manual which goes into detailed explanation of the development of the measure and their psychometric properties including norm group composition, reliability and validity data.

The mental toughness model and the MTQ48 measure, for example, now has a wealth of academic evidence behind it and has now featured in around 40 papers and book chapters most of which are published in peer reviewed journals. Key research papers and book references are shown below:

  • St Clair-Thompson, H., Bugler, M., Robinson, J., Clough, P. J., McGeown, S., & Perry, J. L. (in press). Mental toughness in education: Exploring relationships with attainment, attendance, behaviour and peer relationships. Educational Psychology: An International Journal of Experimental Educational Psychology.
  • Nicholls, A. R., Perry, J. L., Jones, L., Sanctuary, C., Carson, F., & Clough, P. J. (in press). The mediating role of mental toughness in sport. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness.
  • Brand S, Gerber M, Kalak N, Kirov R, Lemola S, Clough PJ., Pühse U, Holsboer-Trachsler E. (in press). Adolescents with greater mental toughness show higher sleep efficiency, more deep sleep and fewer awakenings after sleep onset. Journal of Adolescent Health. (in press), doi:10.1016/j.jadohealth.2013.07.017
  • Brand S, Gerber M, Kalak N, Kirov R, Lemola S, Clough PJ., Pühse U, Holsboer-Trachsler E. “Sleep well, our tough heroes!” – In adolescence, greater mental toughness is related to better sleep schedules. Behavioral Sleep Medicine. (in press),
  • Perry, J. L., Clough, P. J., Crust, L., Earle, K., & Nicholls, A. R. (2013). Factorial validity of the Mental Toughness Questionnaire-48. Personality and Individual Differences, 54, 587-592. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2012.11.020
  • Clough, P. J., Earle, K., Perry, J. L., & Crust, L. (2012). A response to “Progressing measurement in mental toughness: A case example of the mental toughness questionnaire 48” by Gucciardi, D., Hanton, S., & Mallett, C. Sport, Exercise and Performance Psychology, 1, 283-287. doi:10.1037/a0029771
  • Gerber, M., Kalak, N., Lemola, S., Clough, P. J., Perry, J. L., Pühse, U., Elliot, C., Holsboer-Trachsler, E., & Brand, S. (2012). Are adolescents with high mental toughness levels more resilient against stress? Stress and Health, 29, 164-171. doi: 1002/smi.2447
  • Gerber,M, Kalak, N, Lemola, K, Clough, P.J., Pühse, U,  Holsboer-Trachsler, E, Elliot, C.  & Brand, S . (2012).  Adolescents’ exercise and physical activity are associated with mental toughness.  Mental Health and Physical Activity, 5,  35-42
  • Dewhurst, S.A., Anderson, R.J., Cotter, G., Crust, L., & Clough, P.J. (2012). Identifying the cognitive basis of mental toughness: Evidence from the directed forgetting paradigm. Personality & Individual Differences, 53, 587-590.
  • Crust, L and Clough, P.J. (2011) Developing Mental Toughness: From Research to Practice. Journal of Sport Psychology in Action, 2, 21-32
  • Marchant, D., Polman, R., Clough, P., Jackson, J., Levy, A., & Nicholls, A. (2009). Mental toughness: Managerial & age differences. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 24, 428-437.
  • Levy, A., Polman, R., Clough, P., Marchant, D., & Earle, K. (2006). Mental toughness as a determinant of beliefs, pain, and adherence in sport injury rehabilitation. Journal of Sports Rehabilitation, 15, 246-254.
  • Clough, P.J. & Strycharczyk, D (2012 & 2015) Developing Mental Toughness: Improving performance, wellbeing and positive behaviour in others. Kogan Page:London
  • Strycharczyk, D & Clough, P.J. (2014) Developing mental toughness in young people for the 21st century.  Karnac: London
  • Strycharczyk, D & Elvin, C (CEO for ILM) (2014) Developing Resilient Organisations Kogan Page: London
  • Strycharczyk, D & Bosworth, C (OCR) (2016 in press) Developing Employability and Enterprise – for the 21st Century Kogan Page:London
Book Chapters
  • Clough, P.J., Earle, F, Earle.K, Perry.J,  & Strycharczyk, D. (2014) Mental Toughness – what is it and why is it so important? In D. Strycharczyk & C. Elvin,  Developing Resilient Organisations. Kogan Page: London
  • Clough, P.J. & Strycharczyk, D (2012).  Mental toughness and its role in the development of young people.  In C. Van Nieuwerburgh (ed), Coaching in Education: Getting better results for students, educators and parents. Karnac: London.
  • Clough, P.J. & Strycharczyk, D (2010) Leadership Coaching.  In J. Passmore (ed), Leadership Coaching.. Kogan Page:London
  • Clough, P.J. & Strycharczyk, D (2010)  Developing Resilience through Coaching – MTQ48.  In J. Passmore (ed), Psychometrics in Coaching.. Kogan Page:London
  • Polman, R.J., Clough P.J. & Levy, A  (2010). Personality and Coping in Sport: The Big Five and Mental Toughness.  In  A.R. Nicholls (Ed). Coping in Sport: Theory, Methods, and Related Constructs. New York: Nova Science Inc.
  • Clough, P.J. & Strycharczyk, D (2008) Developing resilience through coaching.  In J. Passmore (Ed)  Psychometrics in Coaching.  Kogan Page: London
  • Clough, P. J., Earle, K., & Sewell, D. (2002). Mental toughness: the concept and its measurement. In I. Cockerill (Ed.), Solutions in Sport Psychology (pp. 32-43). London: Thomson.

Developing Mental Toughness (2nd Edition)

High res

By Doug Strycharczyk, Peter Clough

This was the first book to look at applications at the organizational level. The new edition includes greater coverage of how mental toughness relates to other behaviours and can be applied to leadership, creativity, emotional intelligence, and motivation.

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