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All of our measures are evidence based and supported by sound academic theory. All have a technical manual which goes into detailed explanation of the development of the measure and their psychometric properties including norm group composition, reliability and validity data.

The mental toughness model and the MTQ48 measure, for example, now has a wealth of academic evidence behind it and has now featured in around 40 papers and book chapters most of which are published in peer reviewed journals. Key research papers and book references are shown below:

  1. Cowden, R.G., Clough, P.J, Anti, K.O.  (in Press) Mental Toughness in South African youth: Relationships with forgivingness and attitudes towards risk.  Psychological Reports.
  2. Kalek, N., Gerber, M., Brand, S.,Clough, P. J., Lemola, S., Sadeghi Bahmani, D., . . . Holsboer-Trachsler, E. (2017). During early to mid adolescence, moderate to vigorous physical activity is associated with restoring sleep, psychological functioning, mental toughness and male gender. Jornal of Sport Sciences.;35:426-434
  3. Muntz, J.,Clough, P.J. and Papageorgiou, K.A.  Do Individual Differences in Emotion Regulation Mediate the Relationship Between Mental Toughness and Symptoms of Depression? Journal of Individual Differences, In Press
  4. Sadeghi Bahmani, D.,Hatzinger, M, Gerber, M., Lemola, S.,Clough, P.J., Perren, S, von Klitzing, K, Von Wyl,A.,Holsboer-Trachsler, E. & Brand, S. (2016). The origins of mental toughness – prosocial behavior and low internalizing and externalizing problems at age 5 predict higher mental toughness scores at age 14. Frontiers in Psychology, doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2016.01221
  5. Sadeghi Bahmani D, Gerber M, Kalak N, Lemola S,Clough PJ, Calabrese P, Shaygannejad V, Pühse U, Holsboer-Trachsler E, Brand S. (2016) Mental toughness, sleep disturbances, and physical activity in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) compared to healthy adolescents and young adults. Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment, 12,1571-1579.
  6. Clough, P. J., Houge Mackenzie, S., Mallabon, E., & Brymer, E. (2016). Adventurous physical activity environments: A mainstream intervention for mental health.Sport Medicine. Jul;46(7):963-8. doi: 10.1007/s40279-016-0503-3.
  7. Brand, S., Kalek, N., Gerber, M.,Clough, P. J., Lemola, S., Sadeghi Bahmani, D., . . . Holsboer-Trachsler, E. (2016). During early to mid adolescence, moderate to vigorous physical activity is associated with restoring sleep, psychological functioning, mental toughness and male gender. Journal of Sport Sciences.
  8. Sabouri, S., Gerber, M., Bahmani, D. S., Lemola, S., Clough, P. J., Kalak, N., . . . Brand, S. (2016). Examining Dark Triad traits in relation to mental toughness and physical activity in young adults. Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment12, 229-235. doi:10.2147/NDT.S97267
  9. Stamp, E., Crust, L., Swann, C., Perry, J., Clough, P., & Marchant, D. (2015). Relationships between mental toughness and psychological wellbeing in undergraduate students. Personality and Individual Differences75, 170-174. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2014.11.038
  10. McGeown, S. P., St Clair-Thompson, H., & Clough, P. (2016). The study of non-cognitive attributes in education: proposing the mental toughness framework. Educational Review68(1), 96-113. doi:10.1080/00131911.2015.1008408
  11. Brand, S., Kalak, N., Gerber, M., Clough, P. J., Lemola, S., Pühse, U., & Holsboer-Trachsler, E. (2014). During early and mid-adolescence, greater mental toughness is related to increased sleep quality and quality of life.. Journal of health psychology. doi:10.1177/1359105314542816
  12. Brand, S., Gerber, M., Kalak, N., Kirov, R., Lemola, S., Clough, P. J., . . . Holsboer-Trachsler, E. (2014). “Sleep Well, Our Tough Heroes!” = In Adolescence, Greater Mental Toughness is Related to Better Sleep Schedules. BEHAVIORAL SLEEP MEDICINE12(6), 444-454. doi:10.1080/15402002.2013.825839
  13. Brand, S., Gerber, M., Kalak, N., Kirov, R., Lemola, S., Clough, P. J., . . . Holsboer-Trachsler, E. (2014). Adolescents with greater mental toughness show higher sleep efficiency, more deep sleep and fewer awakenings after sleep onseT. Journal of Adolescent Health54(1), 109-113. doi:10.1016/j.jadohealth.2013.07.017
  14. St Clair-Thompson, H., Bugler, M., Robinson, J., Clough, P., McGeown, S. P., & Perry, J. (2015). Mental toughness in education: exploring relationships with attainment, attendance, behaviour and peer relationships. Educational Psychology35(7), 886-907. doi:10.1080/01443410.2014.895294
  15. Crust, L., Earle, K., Perry, J., Earle, F., Clough, A., & Clough, P. J. (2014). Mental toughness in higher education: Relationships with achievement and progression in first-year university sports students. Personality and Individual Differences69, 87-91. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2014.05.016
  16. Gerber, M., Kalak, N., Lemola, S., Clough, P. J., Perry, J. L., Pühse, U., . . . Brand, S. (2013). Are adolescents with high mental toughness levels more resilient against stress?. Stress and Health29(2), 164-171. doi:10.1002/smi.2447
  17. Perry, J. L., Clough, P. J., Crust, L., Earle, K., & Nicholls, A. R. (2013). Factorial validity of the Mental Toughness Questionnaire-48.Personality and Individual Differences54(5), 587-592. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2012.11.020
  18. Gerber, M., Kalak, N., Lemola, S., Clough, P. J., Pühse, U., Elliot, C., . . . Brand, S. (2012). Adolescents’ exercise and physical activity are associated with mental toughness. Mental Health and Physical Activity5(1), 35-42. doi:10.1016/j.mhpa.2012.02.004
  19. Dewhurst, S. A., Anderson, R. J., Cotter, G., Crust, L., & Clough, P. J. (2012). Identifying the cognitive basis of mental toughness: Evidence from the directed forgetting paradigm. Personality and Individual Differences53(5), 587-590. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2012.04.036
  20. Crust, L., & Clough, P. J. (2011). Developing mental toughness: From research to practice. Journal of Sport Psychology in Action2(1), 21-32. doi:10.1080/21520704.2011.563436
  21. Marchant, D. C., Polman, R. C. J., Clough, P. J., Jackson, J. G., Levy, A. R., & Nicholls, A. R. (2011). Mental toughness: Managerial and age differences. International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance24(5), 428-437. doi:10.1108/02683940910959753
  22. Levy, A. R., Polman, R. C. J., Clough, P. J., Marchant, D. C., & Earle, K. (2006). Mental toughness as a determinant of beliefs, pain, and adherence in sport injury rehabilitation. Journal of Sport Rehabilitation15(3), 246-254.
  23. Crust, L., & Clough, P. J. (2006). The influence of rhythm and personality in the endurance response to motivational asynchronous music.Journal of Sports Sciences24(2), 187-195. doi:10.1080/02640410500131514
  24. Crust, L., & Clough, P. J. (2005). Relationship between mental toughness and physical endurance. Perceptual and Motor Skills100(1), 192-194. doi:10.2466/PMS.100.1.192-194
  25. Clough, P. J., & Sewell, D. F. (2000). Exercising the mind: An investigation of the psychological benefits of non-physical recreation. Journal of Sports Sciences18(1), 46-47.
  26. Clough, P., Earle, K., & Sewell, D. (2002). Mental toughness: The concept and its measurement. Solutions in sport psychology, 32-43.
  27. Clough, P., & Strycharczyk, D. (2012). Developing mental toughness: Improving performance, wellbeing and positive behaviour in others. London, UK: Kogan Page Publishers.

Publications – other researchers

  1. Crust, L. (2009). The relationship between mental toughness and affect intensity.Personality 
  2. Crust, L., & Keegan, R. (2010). Mental toughness and attitudes to risk-taking.Personality and Individual Differences, 49(3), 164-168.
  3. Crust, L., & Swann, C. (2011). Comparing two measures of mental toughness.Personality and Individual Differences, 50(2), 217-221.
  4. Crust, L., & Swann, C. (2013). The relationship between mental toughness and dispositional flow.European Journal of Sport Science, 13(2), 215-220.
  5. Delaney, P. F., Goldman, J. A., King, J. S., & Nelson-Gray, R. O. (2015). Mental toughness, reinforcement sensitivity theory, and the five-factor model: Personality and directed forgetting.Personality and Individual Differences, 83, 180-18
  6. Gerber, M., Brand, S., Feldmeth, A. K., Lang, C., Elliot, C., Holsboer-Trachsler, E., & Pühse, U. (2013). Adolescents with high mental toughness adapt better to perceived stress: A longitudinal study with Swiss vocational students.Personality and Individual Differences, 54(7), 808-814.
  7. Godlewski, R., & Kline, T. (2012). A model of voluntary turnover in male Canadian Forces recruits.Military Psychology, 24(3), 251.
  8. Horsburgh, V. A., Schermer, J. A., Veselka, L., & Vernon, P. A. (2009). A behavioural genetic study of mental toughness and personality.Personality and Individual Differences, 46(2), 100-105.
  9. Kaiseler, M., Polman, R., & Nicholls, A. (2009). Mental toughness, stress, stress appraisal, coping and coping effectiveness in sport.Personality and Individual Differences, 47(7), 728-733.
  10. Marchant, D. C., Polman, R. C. J., Clough, P. J., Jackson, J. G., Levy, A. R., & Nicholls, A. R. (2009). Mental toughness: Managerial and age differences.Journal of Managerial Psychology, 24(5), 428-437.
  11. Mattie, P., & Munroe-Chandler, K. (2012). Examining the relationship between mental toughness and imagery use.Journal of applied sport psychology, 24(2), 144-156.
  12. Nicholls, A. R., Polman, R. C. J., Levy, A. R., & Backhouse, S. H. (2008). Mental toughness, optimism, pessimism, and coping among athletes.Personality and Individual Differences, 44(5), 1182-1192.
  13. Nicholls, A. R., Polman, R. C. J., Levy, A. R., & Backhouse, S. H. (2009). Mental toughness in sport: Achievement level, gender, age, experience, and sport type differences.Personality and Individual Differences, 47(1), 73-75.
  14. Onley, M., Veselka, L., Schermer, J. A., & Vernon, P. A. (2013). Survival of the Scheming: A Genetically Informed Link Between the Dark Triad and Mental Toughness.Twin Research and Human Genetics, 16(06), 1087-1095.
  15. Veselka, L., Schermer, J. A., Martin, R. A., & Vernon, P. A. (2010). Laughter and resiliency: A behavioral genetic study of humor styles and mental toughness.Twin Research and Human Genetics, 13(05), 442-449.
  16. Veselka, L., Schermer, J. A., Petrides, K., & Vernon, P. A. (2009). Evidence for a heritable general factor of personality in two studies. Twin Research and Human Genetics, 12(03), 254-260.
  • Clough, P.J. & Strycharczyk, D (2012 & 2015) Developing Mental Toughness: Improving performance, wellbeing and positive behaviour in others. Kogan Page:London
  • Strycharczyk, D & Clough, P.J. (2014) Developing mental toughness in young people for the 21st century.  Karnac: London
  • Strycharczyk, D & Elvin, C (CEO for ILM) (2014) Developing Resilient Organisations Kogan Page: London
  • Strycharczyk, D & Bosworth, C (OCR) (2016 in press) Developing Employability and Enterprise – for the 21st Century Kogan Page:London
Book Chapters
  • Clough, P.J., Earle, F, Earle.K, Perry.J,  & Strycharczyk, D. (2014) Mental Toughness – what is it and why is it so important? In D. Strycharczyk & C. Elvin,  Developing Resilient Organisations. Kogan Page: London
  • Clough, P.J. & Strycharczyk, D (2012).  Mental toughness and its role in the development of young people.  In C. Van Nieuwerburgh (ed), Coaching in Education: Getting better results for students, educators and parents. Karnac: London.
  • Clough, P.J. & Strycharczyk, D (2010) Leadership Coaching.  In J. Passmore (ed), Leadership Coaching.. Kogan Page:London
  • Clough, P.J. & Strycharczyk, D (2010)  Developing Resilience through Coaching – MTQ48.  In J. Passmore (ed), Psychometrics in Coaching.. Kogan Page:London
  • Polman, R.J., Clough P.J. & Levy, A  (2010). Personality and Coping in Sport: The Big Five and Mental Toughness.  In  A.R. Nicholls (Ed). Coping in Sport: Theory, Methods, and Related Constructs. New York: Nova Science Inc.
  • Clough, P.J. & Strycharczyk, D (2008) Developing resilience through coaching.  In J. Passmore (Ed)  Psychometrics in Coaching.  Kogan Page: London
  • Clough, P. J., Earle, K., & Sewell, D. (2002). Mental toughness: the concept and its measurement. In I. Cockerill (Ed.), Solutions in Sport Psychology (pp. 32-43). London: Thomson.

Developing Mental Toughness (2nd Edition)

High res

By Doug Strycharczyk, Peter Clough

This was the first book to look at applications at the organizational level. The new edition includes greater coverage of how mental toughness relates to other behaviours and can be applied to leadership, creativity, emotional intelligence, and motivation.